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Online ISSN: 1099-176X    Print ISSN: 1091-4358
The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Volume 22, Issue 1, 2019. Pages: 15-24
Published Online: 1 March 2019

Copyright © 2019 ICMPE.


 

Assessing Costs Using the Treatment Inventory Cost in Psychiatric Patients (TIC-P), TIC-P Mini and TIC-P Midi

Tim A. Kanters,1* Reinier Timman,2 Moniek C. Zijlstra-Vlasveld,3 Anna Muntingh,4 Klaas M. Huijbregts,5 Kirsten M. van Steenbergen-Weijenburg,6 Clazien A.M. Bouwmans,7 Christina M. van der Feltz-Cornelis,8 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen9

1Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
2Department of Psychiatry, Section of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
3Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
4Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Centre and GGz inGeest, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
5GGNet, Mental Health, RGC Winterswijk, Winterswijk, the Netherlands.
6Menzis Health Insurance, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
7Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESPHM), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
8MHARG, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom.
9Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESPHM), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

* Correspondence to: Tim A Kanters, PhD, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA), Erasmus University Rotterdam, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Tel.: +31-10-408 2917
Fax: +31-10-408 9081
E-mail: kanters@imta.eur.nl

Source of Funding: None declared.

Abstract
The Treatment Inventory Cost in Psychiatric patients (TIC-P) is designed to measure societal costs in patients with psychiatric disorders and to be applied in economic evaluations. Previously, two abridged versions (TIC-P Mini and TIC-P Midi) were developed and tested in a predominantly inpatient patient population. This study examined the comprehensiveness of the abridged questionnaires in estimating the societal costs for patients with anxiety or depressive disorders and to assess the impact of productivity costs on the total costs. In these populations, the TIC-P Mini covered 26%-64% of health care costs and the TIC-P Midi captured 54%-79% of health care costs. Costs due to lost productivity as measured by the full-length TIC-P were substantial, representing 38% to 92% of total costs. The TIC-P Mini is not suitable to capture health care costs in outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders. The comprehensiveness of TIC-P Midi compared to the full-length TIC-P varied.


Background: The Treatment Inventory Cost in Psychiatric patients (TIC-P) instrument is designed to measure societal costs in patients with psychiatric disorders and to be applied in economic evaluations. Efforts have been made to minimize respondents' burden by reducing the number of questions and meanwhile retaining the comprehensiveness of the instrument. Previously, a TIC-P Mini version and a TIC-P Midi version were developed and tested in a predominantly inpatient patient population.

Aims of the Study: The aims of this study are to examine the comprehensiveness of the abridged questionnaires in estimating the societal costs for patients with anxiety or depressive disorders and to assess the impact of productivity costs on the total costs.

Methods: The comprehensiveness of the abridged versions of the TIC-P was assessed in four populations: a group of primary care patients with anxiety disorders (n=175) and three groups of patients with major depressive disorders in various outpatient settings (n=140; n=125; and n=79). Comprehensiveness was measured using the proportion of total health care costs and productivity costs covered by the abridged versions compared to the full-length TIC-P. Costs were calculated according to the guidelines for costing studies using the Dutch costing manual.

Results: Our results showed that the TIC-P Mini covered 26%-64% of health care costs and the TIC-P Midi captured 54%-79% of health care costs. Health care costs in these populations were predominantly dispersed over primary care, outpatient hospital care, outpatient specialist care and inpatient hospital care. The TIC-P Midi and TIC-P Mini captured 22% and 0% of primary care costs respectively. In contrast, inpatient hospital care costs and outpatient specialist mental health care costs were almost fully included in the abridged versions. Costs due to lost productivity as measured by the full-length TIC-P were substantial, representing 38% to 92% of total costs.

Discussion: A reduction of the number of items resulted in a substantial loss in the ability to measure health care costs compared to the full-length TIC-P, because these outpatient populations consumed health care from a variety of health care providers. Two limitations of the study need to be stressed. Firstly, the number of patients in each of the four studies was relatively small. However, results were consistent over the four studies despite the small number of patients. Secondly, we did not take costs of medication into account.

Implications for Health Policies: In developing mental health policy, it is important to include considerations on cost-effectiveness. Increasing the evidence on instruments to measure costs from a societal perspective may support policymakers to adopt a broader perspective.

Implications for Further Research: The TIC-P Mini is not suitable to capture health care costs in outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders. The comprehensiveness of TIC-P Midi compared to the full-length TIC-P varied. The TIC-P Midi should therefore be revised in order to better capture costs in all patient groups.

Received 28 November 2017; accepted 20 December 2018

Copyright 2019 ICMPE