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Online ISSN: 1099-176X    Print ISSN: 1091-4358
The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Volume 18, Issue 3, 2015. Pages: 185-200
Published Online: 1 December 2015

Copyright © 2015 ICMPE.


 

Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Aripiprazole Once-Monthly for the Treatment of Schizophrenia in the UK

Michael Tempest,1 Christophe Sapin,2 Maud Beillat,3 Paul Robinson,4 Maarten Treur5*

1Pharmerit Ltd, York, United Kingdom
2Global Analytics, Lundbeck, Issy les Moulineaux, France
3Global Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Lundbeck, Issy les Moulineaux, France
4Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Europe Ltd., Wexham, United Kingdom
5Pharmerit International, Rotterdam, Netherlands

* Correspondence to: Maarten Treur, Pharmerit International, Marten Meesweg 107., 3068 AV Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Tel.: +31-88-4400 100
E-mail: mtreur@pharmerit.com

Source of Funding: Funding for this study was provided by Lundbeck SAS and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Europe Ltd.

Abstract

This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg (AOM 400) vs. risperidone long acting injectable (RLAI), paliperidone long acting injectable (PLAI) and olanzapine long acting injectable (OLAI) in the maintenance treatment schizophrenia in the United Kingdom. The analysis was conducted from a National Health Service & Personal Social Services perspective over 10 years using a Markov model. Model inputs were obtained from literature and public sources. AOM 400 dominated PLAI and OLAI and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £3,686 per QALY gained against RLAI. AOM 400 demonstrated a marginally higher probability of being cost-effective (51%) than RLAI, PLAI and OLAI (48%, 1% and 0%, respectively) at a willingness to pay of £20,000. AOM 400 represents value for money in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia; however, in light of the uncertainty, the product profile and wider benefits of the respective treatments must be taken into account when prescribing antipsychotics. 

 

Background: Schizophrenia is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Pharmacological interventions aim to ameliorate symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse and costly hospitalisation. Despite the established efficacy of antipsychotic medication, compliance to treatment is poor, particularly with oral formulation. The emergence of long acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic formulations in recent years has aimed to counteract the poor compliance rates observed and optimise long term patient outcomes.

Aims of the Study: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg (AOM 400) vs. risperidone long acting injectable (RLAI), paliperidone long acting injectable (PLAI) and olanzapine long acting injectable (OLAI) in the maintenance treatment of chronic, stable schizophrenia patients in the United Kingdom.

Methods: A Markov model was developed to emulate the treatment pathway of a hypothetical cohort of patients initiating maintenance treatment with LAI antipsychotics. The economic analysis was conducted from a National Health Service (NHS) & Personal Social Services (PSS) perspective over a 10 year time horizon. Efficacy and safety probabilities were derived from mixed treatment comparisons (MTCs) where possible. Analyses were conducted assuming pooled dosing from randomised clinical trials included in the MTCs.

Results: The model estimates that AOM 400 improves clinical outcomes by reducing relapses per patient comparative to other LAIs over the model time horizon (2.38, 2.53, 2.70, and 2.67 for AOM 400, RLAI, PLAI and OLAI respectively). In the deterministic analysis, AOM 400 dominated PLAI and OLAI; an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of œ3,686 per QALY gained was observed against RLAI. Results from the univariate sensitivity analyses highlighted the probability and cost of relapse as main drivers for cost-effectiveness. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, AOM 400 demonstrated a marginally higher probability of being cost-effective (51%) than RLAI, PLAI and OLAI (48%, 1% and 0%, respectively) at a willingness to pay threshold of œ20,000.

Discussion: The model was built to accommodate results of an adjusted MTC analysis. Furthermore the model effectively captures repercussions of deteriorating compliance to treatment by incorporating three levels of compliance with elevated risks of relapse for partial compliance and non-compliance. Limitations of the analysis include the limited number of studies incorporated in the MTC, the extrapolation of short term clinical data and the exclusion of the wider societal burden.

Implications for Health Care Provision and Use: Comparative to other atypical antipsychotics, AOM 400 represents value for money in the maintenance treatment of chronic, stable schizophrenia; however, in light of the PSA findings and comparable cost-effectiveness (i.e. against RLAI), the product profile and wider benefits of the respective treatments must be taken into account when prescribing antipsychotics.

Implications for Further Research: Future research should assess the use of LAI antipsychotics earlier in the disease course of schizophrenia to see whether improved compliance and outcomes shortly following the onset of psychosis has the potential to alter the disease trajectory. Moreover it should be assessed whether changes in the disease trajectory can alleviate cost and resource pressures placed on national health services.

Received 16 January 2015; accepted 19 September 2015

Copyright 2015 ICMPE